dimanche 23 août 2020

cow dairy

cow dairy 

In the past, cows weighed between 250 and 350 kg, lived an average of 7-10 years, and gave birth to a calf each year, and this period could range from two to three years.

Currently, cows weigh between 600 and 1,200 kg, live 10 to 12 years, give birth to a calf each year and produce about 9,000 liters of milk per season (10 months).

The duration of the oestrus cycle in cows is 21 days, the oestrus period lasts 18 hours and the gestation period is 9 months.

1-Milk production specifications:

A good quality dairy cow has a large mite: 12 to 30 kg (about 20 liters). This udder is complete at the age of 2, which leads us to say that the time to select good dairy cows is too late. In this case, we depend on the selection step. On the general condition of the wheel:

-The udder consists of 4 parts, each with a nipple. The length and diameter of this nipple are of great importance, especially in the process of mechanically milking.
-To produce a liter of milk, the quantity  of blood that must pass from the udder is estimated at 250 liters.
-The milk production stage begins immediately after work.
-Milk are lower than the last in terms of fat content, and for this it is recommended to milk the cows until the last drops.
-Morning milk is less fatty than evening milk, but it is more in quantity.
-It is advisable to create the conditions for milking until the cow feels safe, this increases the fat in  The milk, and it is also advisable to milk cows that produce more than 20 liters 3 times a day (increase the quantity of milk by 10%).

2-Influencing factors:

  1. The strain: A special strain must be acquired for milk production, such as Friesian or Friesian-Holstein.
  2. Indication of production: We note that there are two indications, one on the rise which reaches a maximum in a short time and the production approximately 30 liters per day, followed by a rapid fall in production to approximately 5 a and 6 liters per day and daily production continues low until it stops completely.
  3. There is another indication that it has a progressive production until it reaches about 20 liters per day and continues in this way and does not start to decrease until after the pregnancy has reached 4 or 5 months .
  4. Mating Age: Whenever the mating process was at an early age, production was good, but it depended on the weight of the cow, complete growth. Therefore, cows with high growth speed must be acquired for mating at the age of 21 months to give birth at the age of 30 months.
  5. The time between birth and mating: The time between birth and the date of mating plays a role in production. This period varies between one and two months. It is recommended to extend this period to 3 months for cows raised in a modern way and under advanced breeding conditions.
  6. Serial Number: the birth order number is linked to milk production. Between the first and third birth, production increases by 30% and that of the fifth by 50%. With age, this production begins to decline gradually.
  7. Food: it must be balanced, it contains energy (food units), proteins (nitrogenous digestive substance), mineral substances (sodium, chlorine, calcium, phosphorus ...) and vitamins (vitamin A, D and E ...)
  8. The Quantity of milk production: This amount is known to decrease during free time (summer and fall) and increase during cold seasons.

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